Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a brain abnormality that causes developmental disability. Some individuals with ASD have a known medical condition, such as a genetic disease.
The precise underlying causes of ASD are yet to be determined. There may be numerous factors contributing to the development of ASD, which work together to modify the most typical ways that people develop. We have a long way to go before we fully understand these causes and how they impact persons with ASD.
There is rarely anything special about the way individuals with ASD appear from normal persons. They may react, talk, interact, and learn in ways that are distinct from most others.
The talents of individuals on the autism spectrum vary considerably. Some people with ASD may have advanced conversation abilities, while others may be nonverbal. Some people with ASD require a significant amount of support; others can manage and live despite having little or no assistance.
The most common type of ASD is Asperger’s syndrome, which affects 1 in 100 people. It is characterized by repetitive behaviors and interests that are typical for a person with ASDs. ASD symptoms may appear at any age, but they generally begin before the age of three years and can persist throughout a person’s life. Some toddlers display signs of.
Symptoms can manifest themselves as early as 24 months in children with extremely severe forms of the disorder. Some youngsters with ASD display new talents and attain developmental milestones until around 18 to 24 months old, after which they cease gaining new abilities or lose the ones they previously had.
Autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome are now included in the diagnostic criteria for ASD. These formerly discrete disorders have been renamed “autism spectrum disorder.”
Problems with social interactions and communication, as well as restricted or repetitive behaviors or interests, are among the criteria for diagnosing ASD. It’s worth noting that some persons who do not have ASD may also exhibit some of these symptoms. However, in individuals with ASD, these traits can be extremely difficult to live with.
Interaction and Social Communication Skills
People with ASD may have difficulty interacting and communicating socially.
The following are some examples of social communication and social behavior patterns associated with ASD:
- Eye contact is avoided or not maintained.
- By 9 months of age, he does not respond to his name.
- By nine months, he does not appear to express emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger, or surprise.
- Does not understand simple interactive games such as pat-a-cake by the age of 12 months.
- Uses very few or no gestures by the age of 12 months (for example, does not wave goodbye)
- Does not have the same interests as others (e.g., reveals an object that he or she enjoys by 15 months of age)
- Doesn’t point or look at what you’re pointing to by the age of 18 months.
- By the age of 24 months, he or she is unconcerned about others’ feelings.
- Does not act in pretend play (for example, pretending to “feed” a doll by 30 months of age)
- Peers are uninteresting to him.
- At 36 months of age or older, he or she has difficulty comprehending other people’s emotions and expressing their own.
- Does not play games with turn-taking for 60 months old.
Insomnia or Thirst for Blood -> Blood Curiosity or Restricted or Repetitive Activities
People with ASD may have habits or interests that appear odd. These activities or hobbies set ASD apart from other disorders characterized by only communication and social interaction difficulties.
Aggressive behaviors, self-injurious behaviors, and attachment issues are examples of restricted or repetitive interests and activities linked with ASD.
- When asked to line up toys or other items, he gets angry when the arrangement is changed.
- Repeats words or phrases over and over (i.e., echolalia)
- Every single time you play with this cat, it acts exactly the same as every other.
- The era of the digital economy is focused on aspects of items (e.g., wheels)
- Gets irritated by little modifications.
- Is fixated on a single subject.
- Follow a set of rules.
- Flaps hands, rocks back and forth, or spins around himself.
- Disparages everything, regardless of its usefulness or how it makes you feel.
Several other characteristics
Some ASD symptoms are common. These might include:
- Language skills that have been delayed
- Limited mobility abilities
- Delayed cognitive, learning, and acquisition skills
- Inattentive, hyperactive, and/or impulsive behavior
- Epilepsy or seizure disorder
- Strange eating and sleeping habits
- Constipation is one of the most common reasons people consult their doctor.
- Mood swings or odd emotional responses
- Anxiety, tension, or worry to the point of panic are examples.
- Fearlessness or a greater degree of fear than expected
It’s crucial to remember that children with ASD may not exhibit all or any of the symptoms described as illustrations here.
Early detection is important because it allows for more accurate diagnosis. Signs and symptoms of ASD can be detected with early surveillance (gathering or collecting data) and screening (testing).
Surveillance or developmental monitoring is the practice of keeping track on a kid’s development and encouraging discussions between parents and caregivers about their child’s talents and potential.
The CDC’s Learn the Signs. Act Early. program has produced free resources, including the CDC’s Milestone Tracker app, to assist parents and professionals collaborate to track children’s development and identify when intervention is required, as well as whether additional screening is necessary..
A checklist or questionnaire that is exclusively developed to identify difficulties that should be investigated further is called screening.
At the 9-month, 18-month, 24-month, and/or 30-month well child visits when a concern is expressed, developmental screening should be done. When a concern is expressed at the 18th or 24th or 30th month well checkups, autism-specific evaluation should be done.